The anarchy of the third century is when it almost seemed that the days of the Roman Empire were numbered. The reign of Constantine the Great inaugurated a new age much fuller sense than the reign of Augustus ,the founder of the Empire. It had displayed the defects of the irregular and heterogeneous system of government his immense dominion. His successors had introduced modifications and improvements here and there,but,events had made it clearer and clearer that a new system is more government which Augustus had established to admiral and more uniform and was required if the Empire was to be held together. To Diocletian who had rescued the Roman world at the brink of abyss belonged credit of having framed a new system of administrative machinery. Constantine developed and completed the work of Diocletian by measures which were more radical and more far-reaching.
The foundation of Constantinople as a second Rome inaugurated a permanent division between the Eastern and Western of the Greek and Latin halves of the Empire. A division in which events had already of pointed. And, affected decisively the whole subsequent history of Europe.
It still more evidently and notoriously did Constantine mold the future by accepting christianity as the state religion. In the present work the history of the Roman Empire is taken up at a point about sixty years after Constantine's death. A bunch of fundamental changes which he introduced have been firmly established and their consequences have emerged into full evidence of just so. The new system of government has been elaborated in detail and the christian church has become so strong that no enemies could prevail against it.
Constantinople created in Rome has become her peer and will soon be fully equipped for the great role which she is to play in Europe. Hither Asia for more than a thousand years. She definitely assumes now her historical position. For after the death of Theodosius the Great who had ruled alone for a short time over a dominion extending from Scotland to Mesopotamia, the division of the Empire into two geographical portions, an eastern and a western, under two Emperors,a division which has been common during the past century, was finally established.